Desmopressin is a synthetic form of vasopressin (natural hormone that balances water). It works by causing reabsorption of water from the kidneys which controls excessive thirst and urination in diabetes insipidus. It also helps decrease night-time urine production and bedwetting in children. In addition to these, it reduces bleeding episodes by promoting the release of blood clotting factors.
Rifaximin is an antibiotic. In hepatic encephalopathy, it works by killing the ammonia-producing bacteria thereby relieving symptoms such as agitation, confusion, and muscle problems. In infectious diarrhea, it works by stopping the growth of bacteria that cause diarrhea.
Clindamycin is an antibiotic. It works by preventing synthesis of essential proteins required by bacteria to carry out vital functions. Thus, it stops the bacteria from growing, and prevents the infection from spreading.